Marriage Etiquette of Qiang Nationality



Marriage of the Qiang Nationality, Book of the Later Han Dynasty, Biography of the Western Qiang: "The Qiang Nationality is indeterminate, or with the family name of their parents, and marriage after the twelfth generation. Father has no wife and stepmother, brother has no widows and widows when he dies. There are many kinds of widows and widows in his native country. They are "strictly abide by not marrying the same family name", or "marrying after the twelfth generation", or "never marrying the same family". The Qiang people said, "Three generations of relatives, generations of families." Families are never intermarried. When it came to patriarchal families, polygamy was practiced, and wives were regarded as wealth. So far, monogamy has been practised basically. Every family is a production and living unit, which is a small family system. Each household has an average of 3-5 people, more than 10 people. Except for the only son, the Qiang family usually divides their families and sets up a separate door after they get married. The parents leave their children as the support for the elderly. The elderly are the parents, most of them are headed by their parents, and the family produces their father and dies their son. Mothers take charge of housework. Mothers enjoy important rights in the family and are highly respected.

The Qiang people, for example, retain the custom of maternal lineage, such as the unique "Valoezu" (Women's Day) in Xihuzhai, Maoxian County. Therefore, the mother and uncle have the greatest power among the four great relatives (uncles, aunts, uncles, uncles), and uncles. The marriage of men and women must be allowed by the consent of the mother and uncle; the death of the mother must be buried with the consent of the mother and uncle; otherwise, the family division must be carried out by "fighting a funeral fire" (causing life disputes). Mothers and uncles are in charge. Mothers and uncles also have the power to discipline and raise children on behalf of their parents.

Children's bride-in-law was a merchant marriage before liberation. Children, buy big girls to get married, so there is "June wheat is blooming, the husband is still a small child. That day when my husband was older, the leaves fell and the flowers fell. True portrayal. Children's bride-in-law, to grow up in his son-in-law, usually do not hold a wedding on the same roommate, rich people also hold a simple wedding. Also refers to the abdomen for marriage, baby relatives, child relatives, exchange of relatives, prevailing. It is also said that there is a right family, cousins open their cousins, age imbalance between men and women, the custom of "switching houses", and the custom of robbing marriage; there are robbers of boudoirs, widows or wives. Wealthy people marry more, no wife or concubine, honor or inferiority, the most capable housekeeper. No divorce is allowed after marriage. Marriage procedures in various parts of the Qiang region, Gai Wen, since the beginning of the world, when men and women married, this is the beginning of the ancients, all in one, ritual. "Xu" said, "Everything in the world has its origin. The Qiang people's marriage theory starts from the beginning. People don't know when etiquette is not spoken. They need to make it known to all. Since ancient times, both men and women have been married. The origin of this system is Mujie Xing. She formulated all the rules, and later generations dared not reduce or increase them. From generation to generation, the old rules of Rimai must be obeyed." There must be such a saying, but it is different from place to place. It can be roughly divided into two aspects: engagement and wedding.


Engagement Procedure: 1. Open-mouth wine (Qiang: Dao Afsey). The man's family offers gifts and invites the matchmaker to propose marriage to the woman's family. The woman's family can only marry with the consent of her mother and uncle. Hong Ye (matchmaker) learns that the woman's family has agreed to marry, and then exchanges the Eight Characters of Sheng Geng, namely the Geng Shu. Each of the two families kept the Gengshu under the incense burner of the shrine and avoided damaging things for seven days. Then the two families merged into eight characters, talked about lottery gifts and agreed on auspicious days. On auspicious days, some of the important relatives of the male and female families have tables for "Da Afusi", which means open-mouth wine (some praise liquor). Unmarried Kimi (son-in-law) visits his father-in-law, mother-in-law and important families and relatives. 2. Small order wine (Qiang language: Shigu Lazite): After several months or years, both sides have reached the age of marriage. The man hosts banquets, presents gifts and formally determines the date of marriage. 3. Big order of wine (Qiang language: Segurazt). When the wedding date is fixed, the man prepares wine and banquet items and lottery gifts to the woman's house for dinner with her relatives and neighbours in the village, one in each household. Girls are not allowed to appear at this time. They must hide in their boudoirs or in the homes of their relatives and friends. Next came the "send-off" date, the date of marriage.

Wedding: 1. Flowering Night (divided into male and female). Qiang Language: Male Flower Night, called Kiah Xirifei. Female Flower Night, called Purple Hey West Day Feeding) On this day, men and women respectively entertain relatives and friends at home (men spend all night to send "water gift" to women's family to host wine banquets and financial gifts). Female Flower Night (Qiang Language: Purple Hey West Day Feeding) On this day, the men's reception team brought gifts to the women's home, and after the reception team gathered, they "waved gifts" (showing rich lottery gifts). The bride receives parents and relatives before the curtain of the sun (shrines and family gods), kneels down to their parents and relatives and friends in turn, performs hairpin and flower rituals, and wishes the daughter's family to start a banquet. Guests often give gifts such as clothing, embroidered shoes and jewelry. After the banquet, seven-star lights were set up in front of the hall to sip wine and candy on the table. Girls and visitors in Peiquan Village were combed at the right time (the bride combed her hair). They enjoyed drinking, salon dancing and singing until late at night. Man's Flower Night: (Qiang Language: Kiah Xirifei) According to the timing, parents in the curtain of the sun wish (shrine, God of the house) incense, after worship to Keith (groom) red blessing. Then the old uncle, the old uncle and the old uncle hung red blessings. After that, the relatives and friends hung red Bi and the girl's family set up a table in front of the hall and sang wine songs with the unmarried young people coming to the hall. After dinner, drink boxes of Gemma (tea) candy, drink wine, sing a joyous song, and jump up a cheerful Sharon until late at night. 2. Zhengbanquet: (Qiang language: feeding Dasi) The next day, according to Jishi's female home, three iron cannons were fired. The bride (bride) dressed in red wedding dress and embroidered shoes were dressed in red cap by her uncle. The bride's sisters and girlfriends sang a crying marriage song on behalf of their parents. The bride is made up of relatives and brothers, bridesmaids, bridesmaids, bridesmaids, bridesmaids, bridesmaids, bridesmaids, bridesmaids, bridesmaids, bridesmaids and cousins from the "four big houses". In some areas, whole villages are set up. Send it to the man's house. Firecrackers and suonas roared all the way. The male family heard the sound of firecrackers and formed a team to welcome relatives and fired guns at Zhaikou to welcome them. Some people invite "Xu", but no "Xu" is waiting at the door by the chef. Here the man will open the door for the bride, Xiama or get off the sedan chair, and enter the door for money. When the bride comes in, Xu or the cook will slaughter the chicken to hide it. Here the man goes to have a tea break under the leadership of the "guest". The female guest goes to the flower hall with the bride, and is presided over by Xu or the ceremonial master to worship gods, heaven and earth, family gods, parents to bless the bride and groom. Both uncles and elders hung red for the groom and sent hairpin flowers to the bride's chamber. The women's home will open the indemnity items in public and let the visitors visit them to show that the indemnity is rich. After these procedures are completed, Daifei Tass (dinner) begins, sending relatives as guests first, followed by male guests. During the dinner, the bride and groom toast the guests. After the banquet, one person from each family goes to receive guests, and the "Branch" Department respectfully invites guests to stay at home according to their seats. Distribution of guests, after taking home, but also to entertain a rich dinner. If the visitors are not separated, they will be regarded as a disgrace to the whole village. After dinner that night, relatives and friends gathered at the men's home, and their parents lit incense and worshipped God to bless the bride and groom. "Xu" or "Zhai Lao" opened the altar and drank alcohol. The old man led the singing. The man sang "Praise the bride" and the woman sang "Praise the bridegroom". Dance Sharon till late at night. The next day, the host gave a banquet to thank the guests and fired guns at the end of the banquet.


Return: Three days after marriage, the groom and his brothers bring wine and meat to the bride's home. The former bride's girlfriend, the girls in the village hold a banquet to "tease the groom". If long bamboo is used as chopsticks, two large potatoes are inserted into the tail of long chopsticks as pendants. It's hard for the groom to use it for cooking. It's more difficult for girls to deliberately make granular dishes. Besides, a couple of oil lamps (with flour as the diameter of the lamp) are built into the dish bowl. The groom's mouth is burning at the gathering party. According to Qiang's custom, the groom must eat wine and vegetables in order to be auspicious, making the groom in a terrible mess. Later, the elders came to relieve the siege. After dinner and wine, the girls caught the groom sifting chaff, and the aunts and sons (the wives of the brothers and brothers in the family) wiped the pot and cigarettes to the groom, laughing and laughing. After that, the newly-married couple returned home after ten days and a half of playing at the woman's house. Some brides in villages go back to their mothers'homes for one to three years, and some children return to their mothers' homes.

Enter superfluous: Before liberation, Qiang District also preserved the unique national customs of matrilineal or semi-matrilineal society, requiring Jimi (son-in-law) to support (handsome), no genetic diseases (armpit odor), and housekeeping. A childless family is recruited as a son-in-law to inherit the family business. Kimi (son-in-law) is regarded as the same as Zi Ai Xiri feeding (Female Flower Night). The men's house is sent to the women's house, and the women's house is handled according to the reception ceremony of Zide (bride). Before liberation, it was necessary to write a bill (engagement) and change the name of the woman before the family recognized Jimi (son-in-law) as a member of the family.

Note: Recruitment forms are usually written in the oral language: the boy is incompetent, the ancestor is immoral, marry at the foot of Miss *** and change his name from now on. Up the hill, cut firewood with a machete and a peso. One bucket at the back of the river. Don't talk and act in disorder. If you don't listen, you will be beaten to death, and your family and relatives will not be allowed to ask questions, etc.